Developing Factors and Treatment of Substance Addiction in Indigenous Populations
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Indigenous Peoples have experienced multiple forms of trauma for many generations that are still present today. The impact of colonizers’ attempts to rid Indigenous peoples of their culture and identity led to experiences of colonial and historical trauma (Mitchell et al., 2019). Creation of residential schools, the Sixties Scoop, forced sterilization of women, and removal of Indigenous peoples from their lands are some of the many examples of colonial and historical trauma practices (Allan & Smylie, 2015; Nutton & Fast, 2015). Through the mistreatment of Indigenous peoples, coinciding consequences of trauma such as substance abuse, educational deficits, and parenting difficulties have provided the vessels for intergenerational trauma transmission (Bombay et al., 2009; O’Neill et al., 2018). Indigenous peoples today face aspects of racial trauma and marginalization (Bombay et al., 2009). Research shows that trauma is associated with an increased likelihood for Indigenous people to develop substance addiction, and they are less likelt to receive the necessary support (Firestone et al., 2015; Patterson-Silver Wolf et al., 2015). As such, this paper considers the necessary components of care for effective and accessible treatment and support for Indigenous people with substance addiction. For resources to adequately support and treat concerns of Indigenous peoples, necessary components of care need to be incorporated, such as providing trauma-informed care, culturally competent care, and equitably-oriented care. This paper is a literature review of those three components of care.